Category Archives: TORAH TEACHINGS



            “It shall be that when you cross over the Jordan, you shall erect these stones, of which I command you today, on Mount Ebal, and you should coat them with plaster. There you shall build an alter for Hashem, your G-d, an alter of stones; you shall not raise iron upon them. Of whole stones shall you build the alter of Hashem, your G-d, and you shall bring upon it elevation-offerings to Hashem, your G-d. You shall inscribe on the stones all the words of this Torah, well clarified” (Devarim 27: 4 – 8)

                    The rushing waters of the Yarden reach the place where the Kohanim accompanying the Aron Hakodesh are crossing and suddenly the mighty river flows upward as if blocked by a huge wall of glass.  There it becomes a raging torrent trapped behind a transparent barrier arching higher and ever higher until it reaches a peak where it remains suspended in a towering wall of potential destruction miraculously held in place – by Hashem. 

             Twelve men, one from each tribe, are instructed to raise up twelve great stones from the bed of the Yarden from the place where the feet of the Kohanim stood firm as Hashem commanded.  The stones were plastered with sid and transported to Mount Ebal where the Torah was written on them in seventy languages and then they were again covered with sid.  At Mount Ebal, they were used as an alter and then these stones were brought to Gilgal. ([1])  There they served as a permanent memorial whose purpose was to inform the children of Israel ([2])forever  that these stones were taken from the Jordan as the river stood at attention before the passage of the holy ark with its precious cargo.


The danger to Klal Yisrael in the crossing was palpable.  It was not a question of their lack of faith in Hashem’s power.   They had all witnessed that directly.   It was more a question of their worthiness – were they deserving of being saved?

               The challenges in emuna we face today are not so different.  There are hugely destructive forces which form a “towering wall” of moral decadence that threatens to inundate everyone in its seemingly unfettered path.  Even those who have managed to safely navigate through the most dangerous passes, still are concerned about their loved ones praying that they survive this generations spiritual holocaust.

              The Torah delineating the many details of the crossing of the Yarden is not to be seen as only a set of epic historic events but also as a paradigm about how to pass through our own Yardanian challenges, as we see hinted to in the word Yarden shares the same root letters as the word for descent – yerida. The Cazal tell us that a yerida is needed to bring about a true elevation – alia.

             In order to better understand these questions we will add two more statements from our Sages, which are: that the test of being a wealthy person (asher) is greater than the test, as hard as it is, of a poor person and their statements that before every elevation (alia) there comes first a decent (yarida).  Therefore perhaps this is one of the reasons that the Torah instructed us to take the “great stones” out from the depths because homiletically that could be said to represent the “great stones” – ie. – feelings of success, and if not careful pride”, that naturally comes up with us after arising from a struggle. Therefore we were commanded to write the whole Torah in seventy languages and plaster the stones over (sid) plaster.  Why write the Torah in seventy languages and then plaster it with sid? Since the seventy languages represents the wisdom and culture of the nations with each having its unique variance from our pathway towards holiness, the Torah clearly expresses to us that no matter in which society during galus we find ourselves the Torah is always accessible to us. As for why to plaster the great stones over with sid, the Malbim (Devarim 27:2) explains that there is two kinds of sid. The ordinary form is spelled with a samach, whereas the more enduring form of sid, which was used here to cover the great stones begins with the letter sinn.

 Perhaps, therefore we can add since there are no coincidences in the holy Torah and sid spelt with a sinn is the same letters as the holy Name Shakai- the attribute of the Creator’s power and strength, we can learn from here that if we ever begin feel excess pride we should envelope those “large stones” of self importance with the knowledge that everything that exist comes from Hashem’s (Shakai) awesome power and thereby realize that only effort is ours, but success is totally determined by the will of G-d.

             If a person has properly dedicated their success and accomplishments to their Source and has offered to us them for Torah, mitzos and misim tovim then one is fitting to serve as a “mizbaach” to offer praise and thanks to Hashem for everything.

              We can now ask why these stones were particularly brought over to Har Ebal, the site from which the curses were proclaimed and not Mount Gerizim where the blessings were pronounced. Why? Perhaps we can suggest that the positioning of these stones acknowledged “achievements” at Har Ebal these “great stones” will act as a barrier that will protect us from ever incurring the negative influences of the curses

             According to the Rashbam, when we swore on the Torah at Har Grizim where the curses were pronounced and at Har Eivel where the blessings were pronounced, this Torah, which was written on the stones, was before us and we swore that we would uphold it.

              Therefore we could add that perhaps one of the reasons the Torah was written in seventy languages is to teach us that in future generations, no matter where or how difficult is the exile this Torah, expressed in every language will serve to protect us if we uphold it.

               The Chiddushei Harim says that in every nation there is a specific attribute that opposes Torah. Moshe Rabbeinu prepared Klal Yisrael for galus where they would be dispersed among the seventy nations and they would be learning and keeping Torah there, so that they could overcome the strength of the particular tum’ah that was opposing Torah in that nation.  Hence the Torah was translated into seventy tongues so that Klal Yisrael could keep the Torah in any galus that would come.

           The Ksav Sofer explains that this was done to frustrate the comments of the apikorsim who would claim that Torah could only be studied and kept in a sheltered environment such as the Midbar or in Eretz Yisrael where Jews maintained their autonomy and no one bothered them.  To refute this, the Torah was translated for them into seventy languages even before they entered Eretz Yisrael to inform them that they would be obligated to keep Torah and mitzvos no matter where they lived because Torah is eternal.  It supersedes place and time and belongs to all places and all times.

             After we left Mount Ebal, where the curses for transgression were pronounced, the stones were permanently placed in Gilgal.   Perhaps this is to hint that those who don’t properly keep the Torah will need to come back and try again in another gilgul.

               May we soon merit the building of the final Beis Hamikdash, where we will once again bring our korbanos on the holy alter of Hashem.

[1] There are a number of different shetas with regard to the number of different stones and which were moved to where. Gemora Sotah 35-b through 36-a.

[2] See Rav S.R. Hirsch, comm. on the Torah – Devarim 27:2. See also Sefer Yehoshuah 4: 6-20.

All articles appearing on this blog are copyrighted by Rabbi Yehoshua Binyamin Falk. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to share/download/copy this information as long as it is accompanied by the copyright. Separately authored/copyrighted materia



               In Parshas Bhea’aloscha (9 :
15-23) the Torah informs us that all of the journey’s and all of the
encampments of Bnei Israel throughout the forty years in the desert were of
course determined by Hashem, but the way (seliack) for alerting our nation to
travel or to encamp was the cloud(s) of glory that surrounded them.

           The question is: what is the deeper
significance to us today of what this cloud symbolizes and why it specifically
was used out of all the myriads of possible “G.P.S’s – Guidance positioning
systems alerts” that Hashem could have used to guide and direct us? In other
words, Hashem could have designated many other ways to alert our fledgling
nation such as a prophet or Urim vi Tumim to tell them when to travel and when
to encamp, or that they would understand by the astrological signs in the
heavens when to travel or when to encamp, or Hashem could have sent a flock of
birds or animal to show up whenever it was time to move and then lead them to
their next encampment.

           Perhaps we can offer the following
suggestion. Unfortunately throughout history many forms if idol worship have
arisen, for example the worshiping gold and silver; the sun, the moon and the
stars; statues, stones and trees and even human beings have been worshiped as
gods with were  erroneous believed to
have independent powers.    Therefore perhaps specifically clouds were
chosen to guide us throughout the 40 year journey in the desert because clouds breaks
the illusion of what looks like it has substance and independent power. On the
one hand, clouds while floating in the air seem so big and powerful but when a
plane flies through them, their resistance is nil because they don’t have any
significant tangible existence. (Of course they can contain the  makings of a storm, thunder and lightning but
that is not of their own making but based on many outside weather condition
factors.) Therefore perhaps one of the reasons clouds were used to alert our
nation when to travel and when to encamp is because they would always been seen
as only a seliah from the Creator.

          Now let
us apply the above to our relationships between people. How so? Just as clouds
usually are beautiful in appearance, provide shade from the bright sunlight and
provides rain water which is essential for life, but can at times be the
seliach for bringing about stormy conditions, so also, Hashem, in His eternal
wisdom, can sometimes send us even close friends or relatives that stir up our
relationship like a thunderstorm. At such turbulent times let us always
remember that just as clouds are only messengers sent from on High, so also
confrontations with others are also sent to us for our benefit.           

All articles appearing on this blog are copyrighted by Rabbi Yehoshua Binyamin Falk. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to share/download/copy this information as long as it is accompanied by the copyright. Separately authored/copyrighted materia



“There we saw the Nephilim, the
sons of the giant

among the Nephilim; and it came to pass that in our eyes

were] like grasshoppers, and so we were in their eyes.”  Bamidbar, 13:33





             The military reconnaissance of the Land
presaged a battle that  appeared hopeless
as it would pit  the weak and small  against the strong and mighty. The spies –
meraglim – in  answering the questions
posed to them upon their return, seemingly did no more than state the obvious
danger;  yet we know that they committed
a grave sin in so doing.  What can we
learn from this tragic event in order to avoid the errors of the meraglim?

The first step is to understand the nature of
their failing. The commentators acknowledge that the meraglim recognized  Hashem’s power but suggest that the spies
thought that Hashem was going to limit Himself and act in accordance with
nature and therefore B’nei Yisrael would be unable to triumph.

and Caleb, men of complete faith, demonstrated what it takes to remain men –
anashim – even in the face of  vastly
stronger and more powerful enemies. Yehoshua faced the distraught assembly that
was weeping and entreating Moshe to return to Egypt and told them a simple but
profound truth.  He did not deny the
obvious size and strength of the giants, but exhorted that “If  Hashem is pleased with us then will He bring
us into this land  and will give it to us
. . . and you , you should not fear the people of the land for
they are our bread; their protective shadow is departed from them as G-d is
with us . . . “ (Bamidbar 14: 8-9).

           It all depends on the lens
through which we view the test. The meraglim saw the inhabitants of the land as
being too daunting and the land as being unconquerable, because they used their
own personal discernment, Yehoshua and Calav viewed the inhabitants of the land
through the lens of daas Torah and thus perceived them as presenting no
meaningful obstacle.  

Unless a Jew sees himself as a representative of
G-d who is All Powerful, he will see himself  not as a person facing his adversary, but
rather as a “grasshopper” facing a “giant”. The way in which we perceive our
relationship to  Hashem is the deciding
factor in how we view ourselves.

to the spies’ encounter with the giants, the 
Torah says “vanehi b’eineinu k’chagavim” and   “and in our 
eyes [too] we were like grasshoppers.” 
“Nehi” connotes weeping or crying and suggests a diminished, disheartened
and despairing emotional state.  Although
the  meraglim were initially described as
‘anashim’  righteous men — heads of the
tribes of  Israel,  their lack of faith now surfaced transforming
them from human beings into a more demeaning form of life.  

As is all too apparent from our experiences during
this long difficult galus, if our belief in Hashem weakens, our Jewish self
esteem is diminished undermining our ability to see and appreciate our unique mission
in this world.

Kotzke Rebbe explains: The spies had no right to consider how the giants viewed
them. As Jews and emissaries for the Jewish people, they should have thought
only of their mission, not of what anyone else thought of them.  
How many times do we become discouraged
because of what we feel or perceive that other people think?

When, in that diminished psychological state, if we should be confronted by
a difficult challenge, it takes on the hugeness of a giant in our eyes and as
such has the power to discourage us from achieving our true potential and fulfilling
our destiny. How can we overcome this challenge?

First we should realize that there is no barrier so
 large or overwhelming that we cannot
hurdle it,  if it is Hashem’s will  that we do so. The Maraglim saw themselves as
grasshoppers. Why grasshoppers? Perhaps to teach us that every challenge gives
us the opportunity to choose our direction and destiny in life. When threatened,
the grasshopper can  jump away, as did
the meraglim who counseled the nation to jump far away from their  “giant” challenges.  The grasshopper however has another option. It
can leap over the barrier that lies before it. 
When we take up a challenge for Hashem’s honor,  He will empower us to easily hurdle the
barriers in our path.

The Torah is teaching a profound lesson in
attitude and choice. Does challenge bring with it retreat and despair or does
it elicit feelings of courage and optimism? It all depends on our connection to
Hashem and His will.

All articles appearing on this blog are copyrighted by Rabbi Yehoshua Binyamin Falk. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to share/download/copy this information as long as it is accompanied by the copyright. Separately authored/copyrighted materia


            The eternal Torah, whose every word
or even letter is replete with deep meaning and profound impact in our lives,
transmits to us elaborately (spanning over one hundred passukim in Parshas
Bamidbar, Nasso,  Behaaloscha [and then
further in Parshas Korach] (perek 1 
passukim 47 – 54; perek 3 : 5-51; perek 4: 1-49, perek 8: 5-26 and
18-21-32) the designation, separation, elevation of  the tribe of Leviim. “The Levities according
to their father’s tribe were not counted among them.” – that being the rest of
the Jewish Nation.  “Hashem spoke to
Moses saying, ‘but you should not count the tribe of Levi, and you shall not
take a census of them among the Children of Israel. You shall appoint the
Levities over the Mishkan of Ha’edus, over all its utensils and everything that
belongs to it”      

                       Rashi, our most illustrious
commentator, tells us that the Leviim merited this elevated status because of
their loyalty and courage in the incident of the Golden Calf (1:49). / The entire tribe of Levi
refused to participate in that sin proving their unswerving dedication to The
Creator of the Universe.

              The Ramban further enlightens us –
“The task of the Levities was not so much to protect the Mishkan [and Bais
HaMigdash] as a militia, but rather to serve as an honor guard, as befits the
royal palace” (1:53). / The Jewish people’s task is to be an instrument of
recognition of Hashem and His will in this world. Chazal tell us that a true King
only assumes status as a ruler if there exists a nation that acknowledges and
follows His decrees. / Thus Leviim in all generations are those Jews who
steadfastly keep their focus on proper, enthusiastic service of Hashem through
His Torah.

                  The Leviim’s duty in the Mishkan/Bais
HaMigdash was to assist the Kohanim – among other ways by singing and playing
musical instruments as korbonos were brought. Today the sound of  our voices and music, if expressed sincerely, is
an inner expression of our soul’s yearning to come close to the Creator. Song
also expresses the fact that the total harmony of the universe is under the
absolute control and guidance of Hashem.

             The Divine service of Leviim represents
the part of each of us that links us forever with our spiritual purpose in this
world. Rashi, on the same passuk, tells us: that “from this time on, the Leviim
were to be separated from the rest of the nation and elevated to a new status.”
The Seforno, (also on this passuk) informs us that: “because the Leviim would
be performing their service on behalf of the nation, the rest of the people
would have the obligation to support them, by giving them tithes.”

           An Art Scroll commentary explains it
thus: “Those who serve the people by filling their responsibilities in the
Tabernacle, by teaching the Torah, or by performing any other spiritual tasks
are not to be regarded as supplicants. It is national responsibility to provide
for those who carry out the spiritual obligations of the rest of the people.”

             The Leviim were counted from one
month and upward – with no limit to age indicating that their spiritual mission
is not dependent on age or strength (3:15). The Rambam describes the mission of
the Leviim in Hilchos Shemittah and Yovel 
(13: 12-13) “They
are the legion of Hashem, whose task is to serve Him and to teach His Torah and
way of life to others.” He adds : “Any who follows the example of the Leviim
becomes sanctified as kodesh kodashim, and Hashem will be his portion and heritage
for all eternity. In this world, he will merit what befits him, as the Kohanim
and Levities merited it.” This status of Levy is conferred for life on all
those who totally dedicate their lives to the service of Hashem, independent of
age or strength.

                A wonderful concept derived
from the Leviim’s designation is brought to light by the Midrash (Bamidbar Rabbah
3:7). The infant Leviim  counted from one
month old, surely did not participate in the guarding the Mishkan, so the
Leviim should have been counted from when they began their service. However,
Hashem wished to reward them greatly for their loyal service, so when they
reached thirty years old and began to serve, He retroactively rewarded them  as if they had indeed served from the age of
one month.

           This concept should also apply to our own lives.
Meaning, if we totally dedicate our time, energy and potential from now on to
the service of Hashem, we may merit to have our entire lives credited as Divine
service. How much hope and opportunity this teaching offers us. We can no
longer say it’s too late, or I have already wasted so much of my life. If we
start today with an absolute dedication, we can be credited with lifelong service.

                 Now let us look at a few
classical commentaries on the names and purposes of the three sons of Levi, who
each were given a unique role in the carrying of the Mishkan. In Bamidbar 3:17 it is stated – “These were the
sons of Levi, by their names: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.” However in 4:4 it
is stated “This is the work of the sons of Kohath in the Ohel Moed: the most
holy.” The commentators explain that Kohath was later listed first before
Gershon because he was designated to carry the most holy parts of the Mishkon,
meaning that he had become elevated because of his assignment.

                  What can we learn and apply
to our own lives from this part of the Torah? Some of the great Cassidisher
masters teach us that Gershon, Kehas and Merari represent three varying but
proper approaches available to us depending on our spiritual level, when we are
confronted by challenging circumstances. There is the level of the tzaddik,
whose service is so unswerving that no temptation lures him away from his
steadfast dedication to the Creator. This is symbolized by the sons of Kehas,
who carried the Aron Hakodesh miraculously on their shoulder – like tzaddkim who
don’t use the desires or objects of this world for their own personal pleasure,
but only for Divine service.

                     The next level of avoda is practiced by
those stay at a distance from the allurements of the yetzer hora, making
‘spiritual fences’, as alluded to in the name Gershon – separating or divorcing
themselves from anything that could blemish their proper service.

                      Then there are those
times when, for all of us,  the righteousness
of  Kohath or the protective attributes
of Gershon are not within our reach. At such times we must use the inner strengths
represented by Merari. Literally the name means “bitter”, and it is at those
times, when life seems bleak, when one feels helpless and besieged, that the
proper avodah is to cry out sincerely to our Creator. Merari was assigned  to carry the heaviest parts of the Mishkan
teaching us that the proper path of service during difficult times, as hinted
to in his name, is to accept the yoke of Heaven with sincere repentance.

              When the Jewish nation was asked: “Mi la-Hashem…?”
the entire Shevet Levi stepped forward. May we all merit to “step forward”
thereby bringing closer the Final Redemption, soon in our days.


All articles appearing on this blog are copyrighted by Rabbi Yehoshua Binyamin Falk. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to share/download/copy this information as long as it is accompanied by the copyright. Separately authored/copyrighted materia



       The holy Torah, our guide
book through life, gives us not only direction but the fuel/energy to strive
towards our goals and aspirations, yet we find almost a complete parsha ( Behar
25: 1 – 55) dedicated to commanding us on each seventh (Shemita) and the
fiftieth (Yovel) years to cease from many halachic forms of “effort”. These
lengthy periods of cessation from certain halachically defined activities, for
the uniformed would naturally appear to be the antithesis of productive effort.
However, as contradictory as it may appear on the surface, these macrocosmic
periods of “applied restraint” are the most valuable times for growth and
development. This is because there is no higher goal and purpose in life than
achieving a level of “pro-active submission” in following the will of   G-d. “Cessation of self-determination” during
these times reveals the Divine radiance on earth, thereby crowning Hashem as
King of the universe.

                Even though we are not
presently privy to the full revelation of the Torah as revealed through the Shemita
and Yovel, we have been given the privilege weekly through the Shabbos and
during the yearly period referred to as Sefiriot HaOmer to make the pro-active
proclamation that we are willing to defer and or redirect our self interests.

              What application today in our own
lives can we derive from the awesome transformational power of  Shemita and especially Yovel? All Jews have
holy souls that have been sent down into this world garmented in physical
bodies and surrounded by an environment that is ideal for each one of us in
order to help rectify and elevate the creation. During our lifetimes we are
given various experiences of which some are pleasant and some are very
challenging, however all of life’s events are perfectly crafted to serve a
purpose for our benefit. If we could but for a moment have a glimpse at our
lives from the Heavenly realm, from that prospective the allotment that has
been given to us as our portion in life would be seen as tailored made and
artfully fitted to help us reach and fulfill our potential. From that panoramic
view, there would be no more questions or doubts. Each stage of life and each
unique situation whether “traveling” through the “wilderness of experience” or “submitting”
to each period of “encampment” would be seen as what it really is: a golden
opportunity to achieve rectification and purification.

               This ‘ladder’ of development and
transition both in the microcosm as well as the macrocosm is a fifty level
cycle that we experience yearly through the counting of the Sefiras HaOmer
leading up to Matan Torah. Just as each day represents a different combination
of attributes, whose interplay allows for refinement of our midos, so also on a
macrocosmic level, when the majority of 
the Jewish nation are living in Eretz Israel, there is a fifty year
cycle culminating in the Yovel year, which is a special gift from G-d, that allows
us to transcend the bonds of nature. Perhaps this then can be a deeper
connection between the Yovel and Shavous. They can be seen as a (reflective) mirror
image of each other, in that Yovel releases indentured bodies from physical
bondage thereby allowing for a renewed bonding with the soul, whereas the time
of Seferia releases us from our mental and emotional attitudinal bondage
allowing for a renewed bonding with the Creator through His Torah.

            Just as we draw closer with baited
breath to this Yom Tov of Matan Torah so also may we merit soon to hear the
long awaited shofar of the final geula.    



All articles appearing on this blog are copyrighted by Rabbi Yehoshua Binyamin Falk. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to share/download/copy this information as long as it is accompanied by the copyright. Separately authored/copyrighted materia



        The inspiring ideas of this
beautiful Torah thought in Pasuk 34: 29-35, is found in the drashas of the
Casam Sofar brought from the Yalkut Reuvani and additional kidushim by one of
the Rosh Hayashivot before World War 2.  
In-order to give us a greater appreciation of the preciousness of the
thought for the general reader, I have expanded and elaborated on them .  

         The Midrash informs us that
one of the explanations of how Moshe Rabbinu received the (keren hod)
illuminating Divine radiance was that Hashem Yisbarach had commanded Moshe to
write a Sefer Torah. Moshe preceded to transcribe the Torah onto a (clopf)
parchment, beginning with the words – ‘Berasihis bara Elokim’ … ‘In the
beginning G-d created …’ and proceeded until he reached the lasts words of the Sefer
Torah which are – ‘…l’einey kol Israel’ – ‘…before the eyes of all Israel’.

             The Midrash tells us
that upon writing the final lamed of the word Israel there still remained a few
drops of (dio) ink on the (klumos) quill. The obvious question is why there
remained a few drops of ink ‘left over’, since Hashem, who created the entire
universe, knows preciously how many atoms are needed to create the universe, so
He also certainly knows exactly how much ink is necessary to write a Sefer
Torah, therefore why was there a few drops left over on the quill? To this the
Midrash informs us that when Moshe finished writing, he passed his hand with
the (kulmos) quill close enough to his forehead that the supernal holiness that
lay in these drops of dio imprinted on Moshe Rabannu a spiritual Divine shining

             Fine, this is how Moshe
received the (keren hod) Divine shine on his forehead but there is still to ask
what he said or did that merited these lights of holiness? Since the keren hod
is a sign and symbol of greatness and honor, let us try to discover what
special quality was exemplified to Moshe Rabbanu.  The Torah itself testifies when he was
commanded by    G-d that Moshe was the
‘the humblest man on the face of earth’, that he requested due to his sincere
humility to leave this pasuk out of the Torah. The Creator answered him that
since there are many reasons for everything written in the Torah it was
necessary to write this pasuk but in deference to Moshe’s request the word stating
that he was the humblest – anav – could be written without a vov. However the
pronunciation – Crea – of the word is as if it were written with a vov.

                   We find another
place in the Torah where Moshe requests Hashem to modify a word in the Torah. The
third Sefer in the Chumash is named and starts out with the word – ‘Viekra’ –
‘And He called…’ This was the Creator’s calling to Moshe from the Tent of
Meeting. In all Sefer Torahs that alef of the word Viekra is written small. The
Sages explain that here also Moshe requested of G-d that the word ‘called’ – ‘Viekra’
– be written without an alef, thereby indicting a lesser degree of Moshe’s
importance in being called  at the Tent
of Meeting, but Hashem said there are seventy reasons for each thing in the
Torah and this word needs an alef at the end but out of deference for your
sincere humility, the alef can forever be written small.

            With this informative
information we can now put the seemingly disparate pieces together into a
beautiful mosaic of rich Torah (hasgafa) insight. The amount of ink saved by
writing the Sefer Torah without a vov and with only a small alef was the exact
amount of dio remaining on the kalmus of Mosh Rabbinu. Since these drops were
‘left over’ because of Moshe’s sincere effort to maintain his sincere humility,
Hashem used specifically these drops of dio to anoint Moshe’s (metach) forehead
with the splendor of greatest and honor of the shine of the Divine radiance.
This then helps to explain a statement of the Sages: “That one who – barach –
flees  away from – coved – honor, – coved
– honor will – rodaf – pursue after him.” Moshe, our Shepard, teacher and
leader, deflected at every opportunity the receiving of coved and thereby
merited having – coved – greatness and honor imbue him with the – keren hod –
shine of the Divine radiance.  

                  May we merit to learn to
emulate this attribute of sincere humility thereby meriting the final geula
soon in our days.

All articles appearing on this blog are copyrighted by Rabbi Yehoshua Binyamin Falk. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to share/download/copy this information as long as it is accompanied by the copyright. Separately authored/copyrighted materia




             The cheit ha’egel continues to 
travel with us down the corridor of time, no less virulent  today than at its inception some thirty three
hundred years ago.   Today, as in
previous generations, we are compelled to insulate ourselves against its toxic
effects, but to do that we must first recognize its virulent potential.

In these
spiritually barren times, when science is preoccupied with things that can be
measured and recorded, we assume that we 
no longer need be  concerned with
the attraction that avoda zara, literally, strange worship, may
have.  That is, unfortunately not
true.  There is a resurgence of interest
among the non-religious – perhaps as a reaction to the very spiritual
barrenness we alluded to – in the pseudo-mystical and magical.  It has also most recently insinuated itself
into our lives by calamitously tainting the sheitels that are sold in
our communities.  Understanding the
spiritual underpinnings of this phenomenon can serve as our strongest defense
against it.


Dimensional Sin

So, it is with
this goal in mind that we turn our attention to the cheit ha’egel.   Of all the cases of idol worship, the sin of the golden calf was the most
spiritually destructive.  It produced
seeds that continue to sprout in every generation up to and including our
own.  That is because this sin was the
result of three grave spiritual errors which affected all three of the
dimensions in which we live our lives and thus created spiritual blemishes
which implicated every aspect of life.


Untimely Sin

The first mistake
that prompted Klal Yisrael to make the egel was their
miscalculation of the time of  Moshe Rabbeinu’s
expected return to the camp after his sojourn on the mountain. The yetzer
used the confusion engendered by this error to mislead us with the
illusion of Moshe’s passing and Klal Yisrael believed that Moshe
Rabbeinu, who faithfully served as an intermediary between Hashem and the
nation, had died.  This miscalculation
caused the mixed multitude to clamor for a substitute and accept the egel when
it emerged from the flames.

The miscalculation
which precipitated these events may well have been quite innocent and certainly
could have been corrected.  However,
prompted by the eirev rav, Klal Yisrael was willing to place too
much reliance upon their own calculations rather then to await Moshe’s arrival
with calm faith and sincere belief.  This
was culpable.

as now, we had access to two separate systems for the measurement of time,
which unfortunately are not always synchronized. The first is the Creator’s
timetable that metes out the minutes, days and years of our lives in accordance
with His plan for the world.  The second
is our sense of time and of urgency, which causes us to set our clocks in
accordance with our idiosyncratic desires. The difference between them is the
measure of our impatience which in the case of the egel precipitated
this most serious aveira.  

This aspect of our
worship of the golden calf, was not only a sin of action but of  time, of choosing a replacement for Moshe at
a time when no replacement was necessary. By way of contrast, when a new
intermediary, a successor to Moshe Rabbeinu was actually required, Hashem chose
the time and guided the selection.  Under
those circumstances, the yetzer hara was not able to gain any compass.


Choosing a

Thinking their
leader was dead, Klal Yisrael reasoned that if even a person as
extraordinary as Moshe Rabbeinu could not survive such intense contact with the
Creator, certainly, no other human being could successfully replace him.  They, therefore, were willing to consider a
different, more durable, intermediary between themselves and Hashem.  

Chazal tell
us that in their search for a suitable replacement for Moshe, the people looked
to the symbolic images Hashem had designated for the four legs of His throne
(see Ramban Shemos 32:1).  They
understood that those prototypes represented spiritual forces of extraordinary
power: The (ari) lion, the (nesher) eagle, the (shor) ox
and the face of a person – Yaakov Avinu.

It is not easy for us to
conceive of an animal serving as a conduit for spiritual revelation, but we
must keep in mind that we are referring to a metaphysical concept and not a
physical reality. The four symbols the Creator has chosen to represent the four
legs of His throne are metaphors with profound spiritual implications.  To deepen our understanding, we can think of
these symbols as functioning, so to speak, like a computer.   The computer is actually an inanimate
network of circuits and wires. 
Nonetheless, when it is turned on, it seems to come alive with an
intelligence all its own.  In truth, it
is merely a highly sophisticated tool that channels the inventor’s talents into
a software program that animates it so that it is able to serve the user’s
purposes.  The Creator, whose control
over reality is absolute, can certainly “program” anything He chooses in order
to implement His will, be it human, animal, vegetable or mineral.  

Klal Yisrael excluded a human intermediary, they then eliminated  the conduit represented by the lion,
recognizing  that its  positive attributes of strength and courage
were apt to be bound with arrogance – a highly undesirable and dangerous  trait.  
Similarly, they rejected the eagle although it represents the attributes
of inspiration and renewal because of its very independent nature which is
unsuitable for Heavenly service.   Ultimately, they concluded that the shor,
ox, the domesticated beast of labor, which exhibits the attribute of powerful
work channeled into developing Hashem’s world, and displays neither arrogance
nor obstinacy was the safest and most enduring conduit between themselves and
the Creator.

If this was their
intention, what then was their error and what was their sin?    

It is of course
understood that the Torah itself prohibits the creation of a graven image.  However, Aharon’s involvement in creating the
egel means that it obviously was not an outright idol. 

An answer to this
question perhaps lies in the fact that the Torah warns us not to do less than
it commands or more then it requires. When Moshe Rabbeinu, the most humble of
all men, served as the intermediary between Hashem and Klal Yisrael, his
ego-less service neither increased nor decreased the permissible connection
between Hashem and Klal Yisrael. 
Moshe Rabbeinu, who possessed no egoistic traits that could interfere
with his service of Hashem, was able to communicate with Hashem through a clear
vision.   Accordingly, under Moshe’s
direction, there was no hindrance in the communication of Hashem’s commands to
us.  Nor was there any diminution of Klal
capacity to proclaim Hashem’s unity and Absolute sovereignty
since Moshe Rabbeinu, representive of the human symbol on Hashem’s throne, was
inclusive of all the other spiritual forces represented there.

            When the golden calf was substituted
in Moshe’s stead, its service impermissibly subtracted from our required
service of Hashem because it represented only some, but not all of the positive
traits reflected by the symbols on Hashem’s throne.  Thus it provided too narrow a conduit to
accommodate our wholehearted devotion to Hashem. 


            Misplaced Focus

                  One of the holy names of the
Creator is HaMakom, meaning “The Place.” “The Holy One Blessed be He, is
the location of the world, but His world is not His location” (Bereishis
68:4) meaning that Hashem’s Infinite Reality cannot be comprehended
or confined in any way by our finite minds in our finite world.   In creating the egel, an object that
took up space, the eirev rav, in an act of presumptuous egoism,
attempted to exchange the Infinite for the finite and limit Hashem’s presence
to one fixed place.  That was great
error.  This choice was Hashem’s to make,
not theirs. 

as in the choice of a successor for Moshe Rabbeinu, when Hashem deemed the time
and the circumstances to be right, Hashem created a place for His Shechina
to rest by commanding us to build the Mishkan.   In creating the egel, the eirev
attempted to usurp that prerogative and in so doing committed a
grievous sin. 


Rectifying the Cheit

The sin of avoda
is one of the rare instances where thought alone, even without action,
is punishable on High.  The sin is thus
one of thought as much as of action and its rectification lies in our
attitude.  The cheit ha’egel was
committed because Klal Yisrael, through the instigation of the eirev
had too much confidence in their own calculations and too little
confidence in Hashem.  Confidence in
Hashem translates into self esteem because those who have faith in Hashem and
understand that they are tzelem Elokim feel secure and achieved.  Yet, since they realize that their
achievements are a gift from Hashem, they have self esteem, but not
arrogance.  Those who think that it is
they who run the world and not Hashem, are at once frightened and insecure,
even as they build idols of gold and silver in a desperate attempt to create
order and control their destinies.

    In order to insulate ourselves against all
forms of  “idol worship,” we are best
served by acquiring an attitude that is both self assured and secure yet
humble.  This is not as difficult as it
may appear. The distinguished professor and the wealthy entrepreneur do not
worry about having to prove themselves. 
They do not need to flaunt their wealth or their knowledge to increase
their self esteem, because they feel achieved. Though we understand that
egotistical self esteem is hollow and false, we can adopt their attitude by
allowing ourselves to appreciate the fact that Hashem created us betzelem
, in His Image and as a reflection of His will.  

The tzelem
within us allows us to renew our battle each day against our selfish
and negative attitudes using the eagle’s qualities of inspiration and renewal,
the lion’s strength and courage and the shor’s submissive work.  Using these spiritual tools we can learn to
accept Hashem’s time frame and see His will in this world and thus fulfill our
role in creation. 

In order to
realize the incredible potential that lies within ourselves, as tzelem
, we can think of the word tzelem as an acronym:  The letter tzaddik of tzelem represents the tzaddik, a
symbolic reminder of our pure and 
righteousness souls. This is Person. 
The tzaddik with his great and ego-less soul is in opposition to the
narrowness of the egel.  The lamed of tzelem represents luach, the calendar of the Creator.  This is Time. 
The clock and calendar of the Creator teach patience, instructing us to
make our needs for gratification subservient to Hashem’s time frame. The mem
of tzelem is makom, Place, and is there to help us dissolve the
illusion of nature and see the presence of HaMakom in every aspect of
this world.  If we are able to keep in
mind at every turn that we are indeed, tzelem Elokim, we will have
learned an approach that will help to heal the spiritual wound caused by the cheit

With the
rectification of our consciousness in, person, time and place, we can truly be
prepared for the advent of the final redemption, may it be soon in our days.

All articles appearing on this blog are copyrighted by Rabbi Yehoshua Binyamin Falk. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to share/download/copy this information as long as it is accompanied by the copyright. Separately authored/copyrighted materia




I was riding on public transportation a few months ago when a
young person, sporting a ponytail and dressed in jeans and a t-shirt peered
over my shoulder at the sefer I was reading.  It was a copy of Mesilas Yesharim with
an English translation.  I imagined that
he would not give it a second glance, but to my surprise, his eyes lit up, he
smiled broadly and asked me, “Is this the new one that’s just out. I read the
first one and it was great.”  Before I
could absorb his comment and respond, he got off.  His reaction aroused my curiosity.  I came to learn that the mussar
movement has attracted adherents from unlikely quarters. They are young secular
people, who, to their great credit, have apparently become disillusioned with
relativistic morality. They appreciate a teaching that says that there is
correct and inappropriate behavior. In a spiritually and morally challenged
world they apparently have found the teachings of mussar to be
comforting and inspiring.


the transformation even from a G-d fearing serious minded Jew to the tzaddik
portrayed in the closing chapters of Mesilas Yesharim is quite a
journey.  How much greater is the
distance, we may imagine, for that young man and his colleagues. Yet, we have
learned that our Torah is accessible to all who sincerely strive to attain it.
We do not need to ascend to heaven or cross the seas to find it. Thus, such
transformation must be both feasible and practical.  We therefore can ask ourselves, How does
this journey begin?


An answer to this question can
be found as a solution to a puzzling piece of Torah.  In this week’s parasha, when Hashem
promised to drive out the nations that lived in Eretz Canaan, it says, “Hashem,
your G-d will thrust these nations from before you little by little; you will
not be able to annihilate them quickly, lest the beasts of the field increase
against you”(Devarim 7:22). Wouldn’t it have been better had Hashem
driven them out all at once?  Wouldn’t it
have been easier for Bnei Yisrael to have subdued the occasional wild
animal that might have crossed their path rather then do battle with the well
armed, well fortified military forces of a number of powerful enemy nations?


lines of Torah can, perhaps, at one level be understood as a parable – a
parable that explains just how we can begin to walk the path carved out by the
great and profound teachings of mussar and chassidus.


Yisrael may be compared to the body which can either serve as a vessel for
holiness or its opposite.  The connection
between the land and the people can be seen in the word Yisrael, which
refers to both and represents the spiritual DNA that makes up our personal and
national characteristics.  The letters yud,
shin, reish, alef and lamed which form the word “Yisrael
are an acronym for the names of the Avos and Imahos, the
patriarchs and matriarchs of the Jewish people: Yitzchak, Yaakov, Sara, Rivka,
Rachel, Avraham and Laya whose positive middos, personality traits, were
handed down to us as a spiritual legacy (according to the Ari HaKadosh, Likutei
, Kisvei Ari, parashas Vayishlach, d’h, Vayikra
es shemo Yisrael


The powerful “nations of the land” who built
fortified cities and established military forces are parallel to various forms
of knowledge and information which could be used to construct a thriving
beneficial civilization based on truth and justice or a corrupt society.  When the seven Canaanite nations who occupied
the land chose to use their knowledge to live an immoral existence, those nations
came to represent the seven kelipos, unholy husks, the negative
counterparts of the seven positive spiritual attributes expressive of Hashem’s
goodness and humanity’s true goal (Likutei Torah, Kisvei Ari, Parashas
, d’h, Yesh Ladaas). 
These are the middos of chessed, loving kindness for the
sake of Heaven, gevura, directed holiness through discipline, tiferes,
harmony through the Torah, netzach, eternal connection to the Creator’s
will, hod, splendor in the service of Hashem, yesod, moral purity
in righteousness and malchus, the power of royalty to orchestrate and
combine them all.  These middos
are hinted at in our daily prayer of Vayevareich David when we say, Lecha
, “Onto you Hashem, we ascribe Hagedula (chessed), Vehagevura,
Vehatiferes …  Thus, in the
hands  of the Canaanite nations, wisdom
or knowledge became a vehicle for the pursuit of  amoral, unprincipled and unethical


“beasts of the field” represent the baser emotions which will clamor for the
fulfillment of personal desires at the expense of loftier goals unless they are
properly channeled. These “beasts of the field” are ruled by the heart and lead
one to self-serving, ego pleasing pleasure seeking.


When we enter the Land – meaning when
we begin the process of transforming ourselves, we must confront two fierce
adversaries which have to be subdued and controlled: One is the powerful, well
fortified intellect which navigates through the world using verifiable
scientific and sociological data and submits to society’s codes and mores in
order to promote its survival. 


The other is the seat of equally
powerful emotional drives which will urge us to bend or break the rules of
society whenever they interfere with the fulfillment of personal pleasure. We
can harness the intellect and the emotions and use them to aid us in the
acquisition and perfection of the positive attributes that have been handed
down to us, in potential, from our Avos and Imahos.  Indeed, it is the acquisition of the positive
character traits of our Avos and Imahos that earns us the title
of Bnei Yisrael.  In this process,
we are able to affect the soul’s purpose on earth by allowing these lofty goals
to guide our intellectual decisions and control our emotional responses so that
we can achieve the proper service of Hashem. However, the self willed intellect
and the exuberant emotions will not meekly yield to this yoke without a


is to this struggle that our portion of Torah addresses itself. It teaches that
the intellect set upon pursuing misdirected secular goals – the enemy nation –
is not as harmful to us as the unbridled lower emotions – the wild beasts of
the field. Importantly, it teaches that the mind, like the land, is never empty
– it is either occupied by people or by wild animals – meaning by intellectual
pursuits or emotional experiences. 


if in the conquest of our “land” we try to rid ourselves of non-beneficial
pursuits before Torah driven values, ideas and activities have had a chance to
increase, spread out and occupy our thinking, then the vacuum thus created,
could, if we are not exceedingly careful, be filled by the “beasts of the
field” – the lower passions and desires. Thus our Torah teaches that  “Hashem, your G-d, will thrust these nations
from before you little by little; you will not be able to annihilate
them quickly, lest the beasts of the field increase against you.”


in the service of Hashem is like climbing a ladder.   We must be realistic about our
present level and not try to pretend to a righteousness that is not yet ours.  The transformation from secular ideologies
and their corresponding lifestyles cannot occur all at once, but only “little
by little.”  Just as a person cannot
mature from infancy to adulthood in a brief period of time, so too we cannot
instantly make drastic changes in our natures. The Torah, therefore, warns that
this process of vanquishing inappropriate mindsets and lifestyles needs to take
place little by little to give an opportunity for the Torah driven values that
we have planted to grow and spread and keep the wild beasts of the field at


way of example, let us assume that someone has attended an inspiring mussar
and makes a decision to forgo reading novels and secular newspapers.
For someone who has spent a great many evenings in those pursuits, this is
quite a tall order. The person certainly means well, but does not yet have the
training, the discipline or the motivation to dedicate those long evening hours
exclusively to learning Torah, doing community work or engaging in other constructive
activities.  That person might feel
frustrated or anguished and could, at one extreme, decide that he or she is not
capable of keeping to this newfound resolve and may let go even of spiritual
levels that had already been achieved.


the Torah wisely informs us that if such a person sincerely wants to change
these aspects of their lifestyle they might choose to begin by looking
critically at what they read and by exchanging certain harmful and debased
subject matter for that which is less so, all the while increasing slowly but
surely their pursuit of a Torah directed lifestyle. 


Torah values are put in place, unnecessary and unhealthy intellectual pursuits
can be safely removed or transformed into useful ‘servants’ of the soul. Unrefined
emotions will have no foothold because our neshama will have spread out,
filling the potential vacuum with the glory of the Divine Radiance that is
waiting to shine within all of us. This means that as we mature, develop and
apply the attributes that are part of our inheritance from our Avos and
the Imahos, then and only then will Hashem totally remove any connection
with the lifestyle of the other nations. 
Eventually through effort and sincerity we can reach the level of living
life according to the will of and for the sake of the Creator alone. Hopefully,
through this perception and approach to life’s challenges and most importantly
with the help of Hashem, we will succeed in returning to our inheritance and
living within its borders in peace and holiness soon in our days.

All articles appearing on this blog are copyrighted by Rabbi Yehoshua Binyamin Falk. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to share/download/copy this information as long as it is accompanied by the copyright. Separately authored/copyrighted materia


                 “He who recites
the chapter of the (Manna) ‘Heavenly bread’, written in Torah section (Parshas
Beshalach)  (16: 4-36) every day is
assured that he will not lack food” Talmud (Gem. Yerushalmi). The commentator (Levush)
explains that this chapter teaches that G-d provides each day’s substance –
just as He provided the manna each day in the wilderness.

                   Would that we could see with the pure eyes
of a child for whom the world is filled by Hashem with wonder and delight.
Imagine the reaction of the younger members of the generation of the desert (Dor
Hamidbar), who only received their nourishment from the “heavenly bread,”
entered the land (Eretz) Yisrael and saw agricultural produce growing from the ground,
they no doubt considered it a supernatural event.  We, on the other hand, see our food as common
place taking it for granted, but consider the life support system that provided
food, water, and protection to 3,000,000 men, women and children along with
their herds and flocks in the desert for forty years that was truly an open
miracle.  Yet, both systems are part of
G-d’s (Hashem’s) miraculous governance of the world –  a Divine providence (hashgacha) that can be
perceived by us as miraculous if we but choose to take the opportunity to do so.

             The Mann was a wondrous source of nourishment.
The sustenance provided to us in the desert (midbar) did not require the
expenditure of physical effort, nor were needed any of the labor intensive tasks
ordinarily associated with the growth and production of food and its
preparation.  We might, therefore, be
tempted to think that the generation of the midbar was not only freed from the
obligation of earning a living but absolved of all of the challenges related to
this endeavor.  However, such is not the

The unique challenge of the Dor Hamidbar lay in
the fact that they had absolutely no physical control over their food, water or
protection. Thus they were simultaneously confronted with the test of feeling
vulnerable to the elements while at the same time experiencing complete
dependence upon the benevolence of the Creator.

In fact every single necessity upon which their
physical well being depended was not in their “hands”.  They had no fertile land, no rivers teaming
with life, no reservoirs filled with water or towering forests to provide
timber and game.  They had no homes and
no sense of permanency. Although a tremendous surplus of manna fell each day, each
person was allowed to collect only what he or she needed for that day alone. With
the exception of the extra portion that was allotted for Shabbos, the manna was
not permitted to remain for even one extra day for if additional manna was
gathered, it would immediately spoil.  Thus
they were never able to establish any “physical security” or feeling of

            Though it would seem
that they were able to obtain manna without effort or exertion, that is far
from the truth. The efforts that the Dor Hamidbar had to make in order to “earn”
their food, was a constant “exercise”  in
(faith) emunah and trust (bitachon) at the highest level, as the Sages inform
us: “Who is strong? One who surrenders his inclination to the will of Hashem.”

The reward for these efforts was a “spiritual food”
that nourished the body by feeding the soul. Like all things spiritual it had
no physical limitations or boundaries and was not the subject of the natural
laws of cause and effect.  Each person
received the same size portion regardless of size or weight and yet each person
felt satiated . (The message to be found within this phenomenon is very
profound in that at the level of pure soul we are all equal and therefore each
individual received the same sized portion.)  However, there were certain differences that
each person experienced dependant on their spiritual level. If the Mann was
left close or far away, and the need of preparation and flavor were based on
the level of one’s righteousness.

  The more virtuous found their portions ready
to eat at the entrance of their tent, while the less upright had to search further
a field and then prepare it according to their needs. These distinctions served
as a daily “bench mark” of one’s spiritual level and thereby served as an
incentive to constantly improve.

          Perhaps we can say that the placement of
the portion of the manna at a specified distance from the recipient reflected
that individual’s level of awareness of Hashem’s governance, the hashgacha
pratis within that person’s life.

        The degree of preparedness of the manna can be
understood as reflecting the dimension of time. The amount of time spent in
excessive preparation is time lost from its potential supernal enjoyment.


perhaps we can understand why Chazal teach us  that those who recite the section (Perek) of
the Mann every day are  assured that they
will not lack food
, because recitation of this chapter is our acknowledgement,  in Divine hashgacha, that it is the Creator who
is the true provider for everything in its right place and proper time.

All articles appearing on this blog are copyrighted by Rabbi Yehoshua Binyamin Falk. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to share/download/copy this information as long as it is accompanied by the copyright. Separately authored/copyrighted materia



        After Yaakov and his family crossed the
Yabok River, Yaakov returned  to retrieve pachim ketanim — small flasks.
There, the Sar of Esau confronted him; what followed was the definitive battle
for supremacy between the forces of good and evil. This battle continued to
rage throughout the night until finally, Yaakov emerged victorious at which
point he was informed of what his new name would become.

           The stage was set for this momentous
battle by Yaakov’s interest in recovering some small flasks. What could the
Torah be hinting to when it informs us that the pachim were small? What
relevance does their size have to the lessons in this episode?

             Although many people assume that
“bigger is better”, sometimes we find that very low-key events or small items
actually are the “key” to accessing new horizons of achievement and success.

             A key is a relatively small and
inexpensive item, but it serves to open important doors. Without one’s keys a
person could find oneself without entry into ones own home, car or office.

                Like keys that open physical
doors, the words of holy Torah open mental and spiritual portals, therefore let
us try to “key-in” on the meaning of the name uttered by the Sar of Esau when
he announced: “No longer will it be said that your name is Ya’akov, but YiSRAL,
for you have striven with the Divine and with man and have overcome.”
(Vayishlach 32:29). 

      The Creator entrusted the “key”
to insights and wisdom embodied in our holy Torah to Avraham Avinu. This
tradition (“key”) was handed down to his son Yitzchok, who later gave it to his
son Yaakov. Apparently at that time since the Bnei Yaakov were beginning their
transition from a single family into a nation of millions, it was deemed the
appropriate time for the Creator in His infinite wisdom to, so to speak, design
within the developing Bnei Israel a tamperproof supernal combination lock for
the Torah that only the Jewish people could access.

              What is this mystical combination code that
binds us with our unbroken tradition all the way back to the Avos? We know that
a person’s name reveals his or her spiritual essence, purpose and potential. Therefore
it behooves us to unlock one of the deeper meanings within the name given by the
Creator to the entire Jewish nation as well as this same name given for our
holy land. The Ari Z’l  reveals in a few
short words one of the mystical secrets of our national name by informing us
that the five (osios) letters of the name Y’SRAL are the acronym – roshei
teivos – of the names of our three Avos and four Imahos: The Yud of  Yitzchak and Yaakov is coded
within the Yud of Y’SRAL; the S of Sarah within the Shin;
the R of Rivka and Rachael within the Raish, the A of Avraham
within the Alef and the L of Leah within the Lamed. Imbedded
with our Nation’s name and the name of our land is the spiritual genetic
combination of all our Avos and Imahos! The name Y’sral, the “key” –
combination code – to our existence is an example of a single word in the Torah
that contains worlds of meaning and value. 

         May we, the Bnei Y’sral, soon merit the final
geula allowing all of us to once again live peacefully in our promised land –
Eretz Israel.

All articles appearing on this blog are copyrighted by Rabbi Yehoshua Binyamin Falk. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to share/download/copy this information as long as it is accompanied by the copyright. Separately authored/copyrighted materia